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Attack on Greenwood

READINGS- Books/Journals/Dissertations

Tulsa Massacre

American Red Cross
1994. “Tulsa Race Riot Disaster Relief Report.” American Red Cross, Tulsa Area Chapter

Brophy, Alfred L.
2002. “Reconstructing the Dreamland: The Tulsa Riot of 1921: Race, Reparations, and Reconciliation.” New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, Kimberly C.
2002. We Look Like Men of War: Africana Male Narratives and the Tulsa Race Riot, War and Massacre of 1921. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Lafayette, Indiana, Purdue University.

Ellsworth, Scott
1982. “Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.” Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Hill, Karlos
2021. The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre: A Photographic HistoryA Photographic History. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Forrester-Sellers, Julia
2000. The 1921 Tulsa Race Riot and the Politics of Memory. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Tulsa, Oklahoma University of Tulsa.

Gates, Eddie Faye
2006. “Riot on Greenwood: The Total Destruction of Black Wall Street, 1921.” Tulsa, OK: Out on a Limb Publishing.

Gill, Loren L.
1946. “The Tulsa Race Riot.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Tulsa, Oklahoma, University of Tulsa.

Halliburton, Rudi Jr.
1975. “The Tulsa Race War of 1921.” San Francisco, CA: R and E Research Associates.

“The Tulsa Race War of 1921.” Journal of Black Studies, 2 (3): 333-357.

Hirsch, James S. 
2002. “Riot and Remembrance: America’s Worst Race Riot and Its Legacy.” Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Hower, Robert N.
1993. “1921 Race Riot and the American Red Cross: Angels of Mercy.” Tulsa, OK: Homestead Press.

Johnson, Hannibal
1998. “Black Wall Street: From Riot to Renaissance in Tulsa’s Historic Greenwood District.” Austin, TX: Eakin Press.

Jones Parrish, Mary E. 
1998. “Events of the Tulsa Disaster: An Eyewitness Account of the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot.” Tulsa, OK: Out on a Limb Publishing. Originally published in 1923.

Krehbiel, Randy
2019. “Tulsa, 1921: Reporting a Massacre.” Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Mackey, Joshua D. 
2019. “Breaking a Century of Silence: A Historiography of the Tulsa Race Riot.” Fairmount Folio: Journal of History, Vol.19. May 13, 2019.

Madigan, Tim
2001. “The Burning: Massacre, Destruction, and the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.” New York, NY: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press.

Pitts Marsh, Corinda
2014. “Holocaust in the Homeland: Black Wall Street’s Last Days.” CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Messer, Christopher M.
2008. “The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921: Determining its Causes and Framing.” Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Stillwater, Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University.

O’Brien, William M.
2002. “Who Speaks for Us?: The Responsible Citizens of Tulsa in 1921.” Jenks, OK: William O’Brien.

Streissguth, Thomas, editor
2018. “Reporting: The Tulsa Riot: 1921.” St. Paul, MN: The Archive of American Journalism.

Tracy, Marjorie A. 
1996. “The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921: The Politics of Lawlessness.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Tulsa, Oklahoma, University of Tulsa.

Tulsa Chamber of Commerce
1921. “The Riot — Cause And Effect in Tulsa, OK.” The Tulsa Spirit, 6 (11).

Wheeler, Ed
1971. “Profile of a Race Riot.” Oklahoma Impact Magazine, (4): 14-26.

Williams I, Lee E. and Lee E. Williams II
1972. “Anatomy of Four Race Riots: Racial Conflict in Knoxville, Elaine, Tulsa, and Chicago, 1919-1921.” Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.

NEWS – Op-Eds/Recent Articles

Brown, DeNeen L.
“They Was Killing Black People.” Washington Post. September 28, 2018.

Chang, Natalie
“The Massacre of Black Wall Street.” The Atlantic. Graphic Article sponsored by HBO Watchmen. November 23, 2019, published online.

Cobb, Russell 
“Shifting Collective Memory in Tulsa.” New York Times. February 11, 2020.

Earley, Pete
“The Untold Story of One of America’s Worst Race Riots.” New York Times. September 12, 1982.

Gannon, Megan
“Unearthing the True Toll of the Tulsa Race Massacre.” Sapiens. May 22, 2020.

Johnson, Hannibal B.
“As 1921’s Centennial Nears, There is a Reason for Hope in Tulsa’s Effort to Face its Painful History Positively.” Tulsa World. July 14, 2019.

Keyes, Allison
“A Long-Lost Manuscript Contains a Searing Eyewitness Account of the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921.” Smithsonian Magazine. May 2016.

Krehbiel, Randy
“1921 Race Riot: Tribune Mystery Unsolved.” Tulsa World. May 31, 2002.

McDonnell, Brandy
“Tulsa Race Massacre to be examined on Sunday’s ‘60 Minutes’.” The Oklahoman. June 13, 2020.

Myers, Lindsay
“The Continual Erasure of Greenwood.” The New Tulsa Star. March 22, 2020.

Odewale, Alicia
“New Efforts in Restorative Justice Archaeology: Tulsa, OK.” Society of Black Archaeologists Newsletter, 2(1): 12-13. January 13, 2020.

Staples, Brent
“Unearthing a Riot.” New York Times. December 19, 1999.

Unknown Author
“Timeline: The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre.” Tulsa World. May 25, 2020.

Unknown Author
“O.W. Gurley: ‘The Visionary Builder’.” Centennial Tulsa Pilgrimage 2021.


REPORTS – Meetings/Legal Docs/Preservation Efforts

Franklin, John Hope and Scott Ellsworth, editors
2000. “The Tulsa Race Riot: A Scientific, Historical and Legal Analysis.” Oklahoma City, OK: Tulsa Race Riot Commission.

National Park Service
2005. “1921 Tulsa Race Riot Reconnaissance Survey.” National Park Service, US Department of the Interior.

National Register of Historic Places
2008. Mount Zion Baptist Church, Registration Form, Listed since July 2008.

2018. Mount Vernon African Methodist Episcopal, Listed since August 2018.

Norris, Robert D.
2003. “The Oklahoma National Guard and The Tulsa Race Riot Of 1921: A Historical, Tactical And Legal Analysis.” Unpublished manuscript.

Oklahoma Historical Society
2001. “Tulsa Race Riot: A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Race Riot of 1921.” Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma Historical Society.

2007. “H.R. 95 – Tulsa-Greenwood Race Riot Claims Accountability Act of 2007.” Hearing Before the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, And Civil Liberties Of The Committee on The Judiciary House of Representatives One Hundred Tenth Congress First Session On H.R. 1995. April 24, 2007

MEDIA – Dramatic/Documentary Films/TV/Podcast

Clark, Nia
2020. “Black Wall Street 1921.” Podcast.

CN8 Firm
2008. “Terror in Tulsa: History Uncovered.” FullMind

Duffin, Karen and Mary Childs
2020. “Planet Money: Patent Racism.” NPR Radio Broadcast.

Emory University – Featuring Dr. Carol Anderson
2012. “The Hidden History of the Quest for Civil Rights: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.”

Goodwyn, Wade
2019. “New Discoveries Open Old Chapter in Tulsa Race Riots of 1921.” NPR All Things Considered Radio Broadcast.

Jackson III., Harold
2009. “Burn: The Evolution of an American City.” Salt2Light Productions.

Johnson, Hannibal
2019. “Black Wall Street Remembers.” 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Centennial Commission.

KTUL Staff
2019. “Channel 8 Holds Special Roundtable on 1921 Race Massacre: Tulsa’s Darkest Secret Town Hall.” KTUL Channel 8 Broadcast.

Lee, Alicia and Sara Sidner
2020. “99 Years Ago Today, America was Shaken by One of its Deadliest Acts of Racial Violence.” Tulsa’s Black Wall Street Massacre. CNN Broadcast.

Lindelof, Damon
2019. “Watchmen.” HBO Limited Series.

Luckerson, Victor
Run it Back.” Biweekly newsletter about neglected black history.

Lyon, Rachel 
2014. “Hate Crimes in the Heartland.” Lioness Media Arts Inc.

Media Sanctuary
2019. “Reclaiming Black Wall Street Then and Now.” Podcast

Nelson, Stanley
2019. “Greenwood and the Tulsa Race Riots.” Segment in Boss: The Black Experience in Business. PBS Broadcast. Firelight Films Production.

Oklahoma Historical Society
1974. “Through the Looking Glass Darkly, Part I.”

“Through the Looking Glass Darkly, Part II.”
Through the Looking Glass Darkly, Part III.”

Oklahoma Policy Institute
OKPolicy Cast 15: Oklahoma’s Racial Wealth Gap.

Pelley, Scott, correspondent
2020. “Greenwood, 1921: One of the Worst Race Massacres in American History.” CBSNews, ’60 Minutes Broadcast.’

Riggins, Dekoven and Marcus Brown
2020. “Black Wall Street Burning.” Notis Studios.

Simon, Bob
1999. “Tulsa Burning.” CBSNews, ’60 Minutes Broadcast.’

Sound Effect Digital
2018. “Survivors and Historians Remember Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.” Podcast.

Turner, Reggie
2008. “Before They Die! A Documentary About the Tulsa Race Riot Survivors.” Important Films, LLC.

Weller, Rob and Gary H. Grossman
1999. “In Search of History: The Night Tulsa Burned.” Weller and Grossman Productions. The History Channel Broadcast.

Wilkerson, Michael
2000. “The Tulsa Lynching of 1921: A Hidden Story.” Barrister Productions.